A controlled study for the characterization of PM2.5 emitted during grilling ground beef meat

Mehdi Amouei Torkmahalleh, Soudabeh Gorjinezhad, Melek Keles, Hediye Sumru Unluevcek, Cansu Azgin, Elif Cihan, Berfin Tanis, Nurseli Soy, Nergis Ozaslan, Fatma Ozturk, Philip K. Hopke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Experiments were conducted in an on-campus house at Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus during January 2015. Low fat ground beef meat was grilled using an electric stove with no mechanical or natural ventilation. Five PM size fractions ranging from 3.3 µm to less than 0.43 µm were investigated in this study. The total particle emission rate and flux values were found to be 4.49×101 mg min−1 and 1.45×103 mg min−1 m−2, respectively. Total OC emission rate and flux values were 2.3×101 mg min−1 and 7.33×102 mg min−1 m−2, respectively, and total EC emission rate and flux values were determined to be 1.19 mg min−1 and 3.85×101 mg min−1 m−2, respectively. Analyses of trace metal concentrations showed that Fe (0.429 mg m−3), Ti (0.270 mg.m−3), Sr (0.27 mg m−3), Ba (0.24 mg m−3) and Li (0.23 mg m−3) were the five most abundant trace elements in the PM produced during grilling ground beef. Pb, Mn, and V concentrations were found to be greater than the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure limit.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)132-140
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Aerosol Science
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2017


  • Beef meat
  • Emission rate
  • Grilling
  • Metal
  • OC/EC
  • PM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Pollution
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Atmospheric Science


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