A New Diagnostic Technique for Reliable Decision-Making on Transformer FRA Data in Interturn Short-Circuit Condition

Yerbol Akhmetov, Venera Nurmanova, Mehdi Bagheri, Amin Zollanvari, Gevork B. Gharehpetian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Interpreting results of a transformer frequency response analysis (FRA) is quite challenging. One of the common methods to summarize FRA data is to employ statistical indicators (SIs) over FRA spectra. However, SI-specific boundary conditions for various operational modes of transformers are left unexplored. The lack of such boundary conditions renders interpretation of SIs difficult and subjective. In this article, in an attempt to find data-driven boundary conditions, first the conventional measurement setup of FRA technique is modified to emulate interturn winding short-circuit. Then, the boundary conditions of various SIs for normal, suspicious, and critical operational modes of transformers under fault are obtained. Nevertheless, the price of moving subjective boundaries to their objective data-driven counterparts is paid in an intrinsic uncertainty introduced by the process of data collection per se. In order to capture and quantify this uncertainty, a novel solution inspired by bolstered error estimation used in pattern recognition is proposed. In particular, the proposed method allows reporting the level of confidence that an observed magnitude of SI belongs to a specific operational mode. Having this confidence level is also warranted from an operational perspective because it enables utility operators to enhance the decision-making process and estimate the severity of transformer faulty conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9134787
Pages (from-to)3020-3031
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • Bolstered technique
  • frequency response analysis (FRA)
  • statistical indicators (SIs)
  • transformer short-circuit

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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