A Vaccination Simulator for COVID-19: Effective and Sterilizing Immunization Cases

Aknur Karabay, Askat Kuzdeuov, Shyryn Ospanova, Michael Lewis, Huseyin Atakan Varol

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


In this work, we present a particle-based SEIR epidemic simulator as a tool to assess the impact of different vaccination strategies on viral propagation and to model sterilizing and effective immunization outcomes. The simulator includes modules to support contact tracing of the interactions amongst individuals and epidemiological testing of the general population. The particles are distinguished by age to represent more accurately the infection and mortality rates. The tool can be calibrated by region of interest and for different vaccination strategies to enable locality-sensitive virus mitigation policy measures and resource allocation. Moreover, the vaccination policy can be simulated based on the prioritization of certain age groups or randomly vaccinating individuals across all age groups. The results based on the experience of the province of Lecco, Italy, indicate that the simulator can evaluate vaccination strategies in a way that incorporates local circumstances of viral propagation and demographic susceptibilities. Further, the simulator accounts for modeling the distinction between sterilizing immunization, where immunized people are no longer contagious, and effective immunization, where the individuals can transmit the virus even after getting immunized. The parametric simulation results showed that the sterilizing-age-based vaccination scenario results in the least number of deaths. Furthermore, it revealed that older people should be vaccinated first to decrease the overall mortality rate. Also, the results showed that as the vaccination rate increases, the mortality rate between the scenarios shrinks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4317-4327
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2021


  • COVID-19
  • Effective immunization
  • Epidemic contact tracing
  • Particle-based epidemic simulator
  • SEIR model
  • Sterilizing immunization
  • Vacci-nation
  • Vaccination simulator

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Health Information Management


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