Advanced transformer winding deformation diagnosis: Moving from off-line to on-line

Mehdi Bagheri, Mohammad Naderi, Trevor Blackburn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

138 Citations (Scopus)


On-line monitoring and diagnosis of transformers have been investigated and discussed significantly in last decade. This study has concentrated on issues arising while on-line transformer winding deformation diagnosis is going to be applied on transformers with various kinds of techniques. From technical perspective, before replacing off-line methods by on-line methods and eventually by intelligent approaches, practical challenges must be addressed and overcome. Hence, available off-line transformer winding deformation diagnosis methods are discussed precisely. Mathematical calculation in on-line short circuit impedance measurement is investigated. On-line transformer transfer function measurement setup is presented. A profound insight to the problems pertaining on-line transformer winding deformation recognition methods, characterizes existing online methods, explains the concepts behind online measurements and striving to open the discussion doors towards challenges are discussed. In the end a 400 MVA step up transformer has been taken as a case in order to clarify the capability of Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) method in fault detection while short circuit impedance could only demonstrate some rough understanding about transformer condition.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6396941
Pages (from-to)1860-1870
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • Transformer
  • frequencyresponse analysis
  • on-line diagnosis
  • winding deformation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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