Application of molecular genotyping to determine prevalence of HPV strains in Pap smears of Kazakhstan women

Luiza Niyazmetova, Gulzhanat Aimagambetova, Nazigul Stambekova , Zaurech Abugalieva , Korlukain Seksembayeva , Syed Ali , Azliyati Azizan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Human papillomavirus is themain causative agent for cervical cancer. However, few data are
available about HPV prevalence in Kazakhstan. The aims of this study were to genotype HPV DNA in Pap
smear samples of women to determine prevalence of carcinogenic HPV types in Astana, Kazakhstan and
to analyze the association between HPV positivity and the cytology results of patient samples.
Methods: Pap smear materials were obtained from 140 patients aged 18-59, who visited the outpatient
gynecological clinic. Microscopic examination was done to detect dysplasia, and HPV genotyping was
done using real-time multiplex PCR.
Results: HPV testing showed that among 61 HPV positive patients, the most prevalent types were 16 and
18. Microscopic examination showed that 79% of the samples had normal cytology, while 13% had CIN
grade I, 5% had CIN grade II, and 3% had CIN grade III. The analysis revealed that 12% of the samples had
CIN cytology and presence of HPV. Approximately 31% had HPV without cervical dysplasia, while 8% of
samples were CIN positive without HPV infection. A statistically significant relationship between HPV
16 and HPV 33 positive samples and CIN grade II and III was found.
Conclusions: Overall, this study will help to strengthen and guide health policy implementation of
primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention strategies in Kazakhstan.
2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85
Number of pages88
JournalInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2017


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