Assessment of risk factors of helicobacter pylori infection and peptic ulcer disease

Rahul S. Mhaskar, Izurieta Ricardo, Azizan Azliyati, Rajaram Laxminarayan, Bapaye Amol, Walujkar Santosh, Kwa Boo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a risk factor for peptic ulcer. There have been no studies addressing environmental and dietary risk factors in western India. We conducted a case control study enrolling peptic ulcer patients in Pune, India. Materials and Methods: Risk factors for peptic ulcer and H. pylori infection were assessed in a participant interview. H. pylori status was assessed from stool by monoclonal antigen detection. Results: We enrolled 190 peptic ulcer, 35 stomach cancer patients, and 125 controls. Fifty-one percent (180/350) of the participants were infected with H. pylori. Lower socioeconomic status (SES) [odds ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.39], meat consumption (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.30-4.23), smoking (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.24-4.02), eating restaurant food (OR: 3.77, 95% CI: 1.39-10.23), and drinking nonfiltered or nonboiled water (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.23) were risk factors for H. pylori infection. H. pylori infection (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.03-2.89), meat (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.75), fish (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.89) consumption, and a family history of ulcer (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.08-1.60) were risk factors for peptic ulcer. Consumption of chili peppers (OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.37) and parasite infestation (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24-0.80) were protective against H. pylori infection. Conclusion: H. pylori infection is associated with peptic ulcer. Lower SES, consumption of restaurant food, meat, nonfiltered water, and smoking are risk factors for H. pylori. Consumption of meat, fish, and a family history of peptic ulcer are risk factors for peptic ulcer. Consumption of chili peppers and concurrent parasite infestation appear to be protective against H. pylori.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)60-67
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Global Infectious Diseases
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2013


  • Case control study
  • Chili peppers
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • India
  • Parasites
  • Pune

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases

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