Association of Lung Fibrotic Changes and Cardiological Dysfunction with Comorbidities in Long COVID-19 cohort

Ainur Tauekelova, Zhanar Kalila, Akerke Bakhtiyar, Zarina Sautbayeva, Polina Len, Aliya Sailybayeva, Sadyk Khamitov, Nazira Kadroldinova, Natalie Barteneva, Makhabbat Bekbossynova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long COVID and Post-COVID-19 Syndromes)
Background. Long COVID-19 symptoms appeared in many COVID-19 survivors. However, the prevalence and symptoms associated with long COVID-19 and its comorbidities have not been established. Methods. In total, 312 patients with long COVID-19 from 21 primary care centers were included in the study. At the six-month follow-up, their lung function was assessed by computerized tomography (CT) and spirometry, whereas cardiac function was assessed by electrocardiogram (ECG), Holter ECG, echocardiography, 24 h blood pressure monitoring, and a six-minute walk test (6MWT). Results. Of the 312 persons investigated, significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, and elevated NT-proBNP were revealed in participants with hypertension or type 2 diabetes. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was more frequently present in patients with hypertension. The most common registered CT abnormalities were fibrotic changes (83, 36.6%) and mediastinal lymphadenopathy (23, 10.1%). Among the tested biochemical parameters, three associations were found in long COVID-19 patients with hypertension but not diabetes: increased hemoglobin, fibrinogen, and ferritin. Nine patients had persisting IgM antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions. We demonstrated a strong association between signs of cardiac dysfunction and lung fibrotic changes with comorbidities in a cohort of long COVID-19 subjects.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2567
Number of pages29
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jan 31 2023


  • long COVID-19
  • post-COVID-19
  • hypertension
  • diabetes
  • lung sequelae
  • cardiological sequelae
  • persisting IgM


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