Proper consideration of traffic loading in pavement design requires knowledge of the full axle load distribution by the main axle types, including single, tandem, and tridem axles. Although the equivalent single axle load (ESAL) concept has been used since the 1960s for empirical pavement design, the new mechanistic-based pavement design procedures under development by various agencies most likely will require the use of the axle load distribution. Procedures and models for converting average daily traffic into ESALs and axle load distribution are presented, as are the relevant issues on the characterization of the full axle load distributions for single, tandem, and tridem axles for use in mechanistic-based pavement design. Weigh-in-motion data from the North Central Region of the Long-Term Pavement Performance study database were used to develop the models for predicting axle load distribution.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering