Bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb in toys and low-cost jewelry

Mert Guney, Gerald J. Zagury

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Children can be exposed to toxic elements in toys and jewelry following ingestion. As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb bioavailability was assessed (n = 24) via the in vitro gastrointestinal protocol (IVG), the physiologically based extraction test (PBET), and the European Toy Safety Standard protocol (EN 71-3), and health risks were characterized. Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were mobilized from 19 metallic toys and jewelry (MJ) and one crayon set. Bioaccessible Cd, Ni, or Pb exceeded EU migratable concentration limits in four to six MJ, depending on the protocol. Using two-phase (gastric + intestinal) IVG or PBET might be preferable over EN 71-3 since they better represent gastrointestinal physiology. Bioaccessible and total metal concentrations were different and not always correlated, indicating that bioaccessibility measurement may provide more accurate risk characterization. More information on impacts of multiple factors affecting metals mobilization from toys and jewelry is needed before recommending specific tests. Hazard index (HI) for Cd, Ni, or Pb were >1 for all six MJ exceeding the EU limits. For infants (6-12 mo old), 10 MJ had HI > 1 for Cd, Cu, Ni, or Pb (up to 75 for Cd and 43 for Pb). Research on prolonged exposure to MJ and comprehensive risk characterization for toys and jewelry exposure is recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1238-1246
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume48
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 21 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Jewelry
Play and Playthings
Hazards
Metals
Costs and Cost Analysis
Poisons
Health risks
Physiology
cost
Costs
hazard
metal
health risk
bioavailability
physiology
mobilization
Biological Availability
Stomach
Eating
protocol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb in toys and low-cost jewelry. / Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 48, No. 2, 21.01.2014, p. 1238-1246.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{985a2f74a76442bdbdceacd958af3a9d,
title = "Bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb in toys and low-cost jewelry",
abstract = "Children can be exposed to toxic elements in toys and jewelry following ingestion. As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb bioavailability was assessed (n = 24) via the in vitro gastrointestinal protocol (IVG), the physiologically based extraction test (PBET), and the European Toy Safety Standard protocol (EN 71-3), and health risks were characterized. Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were mobilized from 19 metallic toys and jewelry (MJ) and one crayon set. Bioaccessible Cd, Ni, or Pb exceeded EU migratable concentration limits in four to six MJ, depending on the protocol. Using two-phase (gastric + intestinal) IVG or PBET might be preferable over EN 71-3 since they better represent gastrointestinal physiology. Bioaccessible and total metal concentrations were different and not always correlated, indicating that bioaccessibility measurement may provide more accurate risk characterization. More information on impacts of multiple factors affecting metals mobilization from toys and jewelry is needed before recommending specific tests. Hazard index (HI) for Cd, Ni, or Pb were >1 for all six MJ exceeding the EU limits. For infants (6-12 mo old), 10 MJ had HI > 1 for Cd, Cu, Ni, or Pb (up to 75 for Cd and 43 for Pb). Research on prolonged exposure to MJ and comprehensive risk characterization for toys and jewelry exposure is recommended.",
author = "Mert Guney and Zagury, {Gerald J.}",
year = "2014",
month = "1",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1021/es4036122",
language = "English",
volume = "48",
pages = "1238--1246",
journal = "Environmental Science & Technology",
issn = "0013-936X",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb in toys and low-cost jewelry

AU - Guney, Mert

AU - Zagury, Gerald J.

PY - 2014/1/21

Y1 - 2014/1/21

N2 - Children can be exposed to toxic elements in toys and jewelry following ingestion. As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb bioavailability was assessed (n = 24) via the in vitro gastrointestinal protocol (IVG), the physiologically based extraction test (PBET), and the European Toy Safety Standard protocol (EN 71-3), and health risks were characterized. Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were mobilized from 19 metallic toys and jewelry (MJ) and one crayon set. Bioaccessible Cd, Ni, or Pb exceeded EU migratable concentration limits in four to six MJ, depending on the protocol. Using two-phase (gastric + intestinal) IVG or PBET might be preferable over EN 71-3 since they better represent gastrointestinal physiology. Bioaccessible and total metal concentrations were different and not always correlated, indicating that bioaccessibility measurement may provide more accurate risk characterization. More information on impacts of multiple factors affecting metals mobilization from toys and jewelry is needed before recommending specific tests. Hazard index (HI) for Cd, Ni, or Pb were >1 for all six MJ exceeding the EU limits. For infants (6-12 mo old), 10 MJ had HI > 1 for Cd, Cu, Ni, or Pb (up to 75 for Cd and 43 for Pb). Research on prolonged exposure to MJ and comprehensive risk characterization for toys and jewelry exposure is recommended.

AB - Children can be exposed to toxic elements in toys and jewelry following ingestion. As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb bioavailability was assessed (n = 24) via the in vitro gastrointestinal protocol (IVG), the physiologically based extraction test (PBET), and the European Toy Safety Standard protocol (EN 71-3), and health risks were characterized. Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were mobilized from 19 metallic toys and jewelry (MJ) and one crayon set. Bioaccessible Cd, Ni, or Pb exceeded EU migratable concentration limits in four to six MJ, depending on the protocol. Using two-phase (gastric + intestinal) IVG or PBET might be preferable over EN 71-3 since they better represent gastrointestinal physiology. Bioaccessible and total metal concentrations were different and not always correlated, indicating that bioaccessibility measurement may provide more accurate risk characterization. More information on impacts of multiple factors affecting metals mobilization from toys and jewelry is needed before recommending specific tests. Hazard index (HI) for Cd, Ni, or Pb were >1 for all six MJ exceeding the EU limits. For infants (6-12 mo old), 10 MJ had HI > 1 for Cd, Cu, Ni, or Pb (up to 75 for Cd and 43 for Pb). Research on prolonged exposure to MJ and comprehensive risk characterization for toys and jewelry exposure is recommended.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84892761250&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84892761250&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/es4036122

DO - 10.1021/es4036122

M3 - Article

VL - 48

SP - 1238

EP - 1246

JO - Environmental Science & Technology

JF - Environmental Science & Technology

SN - 0013-936X

IS - 2

ER -