### Abstract

Variations in electricity tariffs arising due to stochastic demand loads on the power grids have stimulated research in finding optimal charging/discharging scheduling solutions for electric vehicles (EVs). Most of the current EV scheduling solutions are either centralized, which suffer from low reliability and high complexity, while existing decentralized solutions do not facilitate the efficient scheduling of on-move EVs in large-scale networks considering a smart energy distribution system. Motivated by smart cities applications, we consider in this paper the optimal scheduling of EVs in a geographically large-scale smart energy distribution system where EVs have the flexibility of charging/discharging at spatially-deployed smart charging stations (CSs) operated by individual aggregators. In such a scenario, we define the social welfare maximization problem as the total profit of both supply and demand sides in the form of a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) model. Due to the intractability, we then propose an online decentralized algorithm with low complexity which utilizes effective heuristics to forward each EV to the most profitable CS in a smart manner. Results of simulations on the IEEE 37 bus distribution network verify that the proposed algorithm improves the social welfare by about 30% on average with respect to an alternative scheduling strategy under the equal participation of EVs in charging and discharging operations. Considering the best-case performance where only EV profit maximization is concerned, our solution also achieves upto 20% improvement in flatting the final electricity load. Furthermore, the results reveal the existence of an optimal number of CSs and an optimal vehicle-to-grid penetration threshold for which the overall profit can be maximized. Our findings serve as guidelines for V2G system designers in smart city scenarios to plan a cost-effective strategy for large-scale EVs distributed energy management.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 9066844 |

Pages (from-to) | 75666-75681 |

Number of pages | 16 |

Journal | IEEE Access |

Volume | 8 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Jan 1 2020 |

### Keywords

- distributed energy management
- Electric vehicle-to-grid (V2G)
- greedy-based algorithm
- mixed integer non-linear programming
- smart cities

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Computer Science(all)
- Materials Science(all)
- Engineering(all)

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## Cite this

*IEEE Access*,

*8*, 75666-75681. [9066844]. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2987970