Designing Allele-Specific Competitive-Extension PCR-Based Assays for High-Throughput Genotyping and Gene Characterization

Ruslan Kalendar, Alexandr V. Shustov, Ilyas Akhmetollayev, Ulykbek Kairov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a simple and rapid method that can detect nucleotide polymorphisms and sequence variation in basic research applications, agriculture, and medicine. Variants of PCR, collectively known as allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR), use a competitive reaction in the presence of allele-specific primers to preferentially amplify only certain alleles. This method, originally named by its developers as Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP), is an AS-PCR variant adapted for fluorescence-based detection of amplification results. We developed a bioinformatic tool for designing probe sequences for PCR-based genotyping assays. Probe sequences are designed in both directions, and both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion-deletions (InDels) may be targeted. In addition, the tool allows discrimination of up to four-allelic variants at a single SNP site. To increase both the reaction specificity and the discriminative power of SNP genotyping, each allele-specific primer is designed such that the penultimate base before the primer’s 3′ end base is positioned at the SNP site. The tool allows design of custom FRET cassette reporter systems for fluorescence-based assays. FastPCR is a user-friendly and powerful Java-based software that is freely available ( Using the FastPCR environment and the tool for designing AS-PCR provides unparalleled flexibility for developing genotyping assays and specific and sensitive diagnostic PCR-based tests, which translates into a greater likelihood of research success.

Original languageEnglish
Article number773956
JournalFrontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2022


  • diagnostic system
  • genotyping assay design software
  • genotyping system
  • insertion-deletion polymorphism
  • polymerase chain reaction-based markers
  • single nucleotide polymorphism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Biology


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