Analysis of the genetic diversity of natural populations of threatened and endangered species of plants is a main aspect of conservation strategy. The endangered species Allium altaicum is a relict plant of the Ice Age and natural populations are located in extreme climatic conditions of Kazakstan’s Altai Mountains. Mobile genetic elements and other interspersed repeats are basic components of a eukaryote genome, which can activate under stress conditions and indirectly promote the survival of an organism against environmental stresses. Detections of chromosomal changes related to recombination processes of mobile genetic elements are performed by various PCR methods. These methods are based on interspersed repeat sequences and are an effective tool for research of biological diversity of plants and their variability. In our research, we used conservative sequences of tRNA primer binding sites (PBS) when initializing the retrotransposon replication as PCR primers to research the genetic diversity of 12 natural populations of Allium altaicum found in various ecogeographic conditions of the Kazakhstani Altai. High efficiency of the PBS amplification method used was observed already at the intrapopulation level. Unique amplicons representative of a certain population were found at the intrapopulation level. Analysis of molecular dispersion revealed that the biodiversity of populations of mountainous and lowland Allium altaicum is due to intrapopulation differences for climatic zones of habitation. This is likely conditional upon predominance of vegetative reproduction over seed reproduction in some populations. In the case of vegetative reproduction, somatic recombination related to the activity of mobile genetic elements are preserved in subsequent generations. This leads to an increase of intrapopulation genetic diversity. Thus, high genetic diversity was observed in populations such as Allium altaicum located in the territory of the Kalbinskii Altai, whereas the minimum diversity was observed in the populations of the Leninororsk ecogeographic group. Distinctions between these populations were also identified depending on the areas of their distribution. Low-land and mid-mountain living environments are characterized by a great variety of shapes and plasticity. This work allowed us to obtain new genetic data on the structure of Allium altaicum populations on the territory of the Kazakhstan Altai for the subsequent development of preservation and reproduction strategies for this relict species.