Effects of groundwater table position and soil properties on stability of slope during rainfall

Harianto Rahardjo, Alfrendo Satyanaga Nio, Eng Choon Leong, Ng Yew Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Citations (Scopus)


Rainfall, hydrological condition, and geological formation of slope are important contributing factors to slope failures. Parametric studies were carried out to study the effect of groundwater table position, rainfall intensities, and soil properties in affecting slope stability. Three different groundwater table positions corresponding to the wettest, typical, and driest periods in Singapore and four different rainfall intensities (9, 22, 36, and 80 mm/h) were used in the numerical analyses. Typical soil properties of two main residual soils from the Bukit Timah Granite and the sedimentary Jurong Formation in Singapore were incorporated into the numerical analyses. The changes in factor of safety during rainfall were not affected significantly by the groundwater table near the ground surface due to the relatively small changes in matric suction during rainfall. A delay in response of the minimum factor of safety due to rainfall and a slower recovery rate after rainfall were observed in slopes from the sedimentary Jurong Formation as compared to those slopes from the Bukit Timah Granite. Numerical analyses of an actual residual soil slope from the Bukit Timah Granite at Marsiling Road and a residual soil slope from the sedimentary Jurong Formation at Jalan Kukoh show good agreement with the trends observed in the parametric studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1555-1564
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Groundwater table
  • Matric suction
  • Permeability
  • Rainfall intensity
  • Residual soils
  • Shear strength
  • Slope stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Environmental Science(all)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of groundwater table position and soil properties on stability of slope during rainfall'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this