Effects of operating conditions on the removal of heavy metals by zeolite in fixed bed reactors

V. J. Inglezakis, Helen Grigoropoulou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Citations (Scopus)


This work investigates the effects of flow rate (5-15 Bed Volumes/h), particle size (0.8-1.7 mm), concentration (0.005-0.02 N) and Na +-enrichment of natural clinoptilolite on the removal efficiency of Pb2+, Cu2+, Fe3+ and Cr3+ in aqueous solutions. Ion exchange is performed in an upflow fixed bed reactor. The removal efficiency is increased with decreasing flow rate, particle size and concentration and is improved by a factor of 2-10, depending on the specific metal. The modification of the natural sample is favorable, leading to an increase of removal efficiency by 32-100%. For the experimental conditions examined, removal efficiency order is the following: Pb2+>Cr 3+>Fe3+≥Cu2+. Finally, the operation is influenced by the studied parameters, following the order: concentration> volumetric flow rate>particle size>modification of the material.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-43
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 9 2004


  • Clinoptilolite
  • Fixed bed
  • Heavy metals
  • Ion exchange
  • Selectivity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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