In this paper we demonstrate that SWNTs and a covalent immobilization strategy enable very sensitive sensors with excellent long term stability. Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) functionalized single and multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) conjugates were exploited for direct amperometric detection of paraoxon, a model organophosphate. The catalytic hydrolysis of paraoxon produces equimoles of p-nitrophenol; oxidation was monitored amperometrically in real time under flow-injection (FIA) mode. OPH covalently immobilized on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) demonstrated much higher activity than OPH conjugated to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The dynamic concentration range for SWNT-OPH was 0.5-8.5 μmol L-1 with a detection limit of 0.01 μmol L-1 (S/N = 3). In addition to this high sensitivity, the immobilized OPH retained a significant degree of enzymatic activity, and displayed remarkable stability with only 25% signal loss over 7 months. These results suggest that covalent immobilization of OPH on CNTs can be used for specific immobilization with advantages of long term stability, high sensitivity, and simplicity.
- Carbon nanotubes
- Covalent immobilization
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry