Evaluation of the impact of wind farms on birds: The case study ofLebanon

G. Al Zohbi, P. Hendrick, Ph Bouillard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Wind farming is a relatively new form of obtaining energy that does not cause air pollution in working conditions or other forms of environmental degradation associated with fossil fuel technologies. However, their use impacts the environment and the current rate at which they are being put into operation, combined with understanding of their medium-and long-term impact, is a cause of concern. Wind farms represent a new source of impact and disturbance for birds adds to the long list of disturbance factors caused by human activity, such as power lines, radio, television and cell phone towers, highways, glass windows or the practice of fishing and illegal hunting. Due to the precarious situation of several bird species and their decline, any additional cause of mortality may be significant and should give rise to increased attention and analysis. The aim of the present work is to analyse the impact of wind turbines located in five selected optimal sites for the installation of wind farms on birds in Lebanon. The results suggest that the presence of the wind turbines will not have a clearly negative effect on birds in the sites where wind farms could be installed. Some sites are closed to natural reserves such as Cedars and Quaraoun or near roads used by migratory birds such as Marjyoun, Klaiaat Quaraoun, but the impacts can be reduced by taking preventive measures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)682-689
Number of pages8
JournalRenewable Energy
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Bird conservation
  • Birds of prey
  • Collision risk
  • IBA birdlife
  • Migration
  • Wind turbines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

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