Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the leading cause of CKD in children, featuring a broad variety of malformations. A monogenic cause can be detected in around 12%of patients. However, themorphologic clinical phenotype of CAKUT frequently does not indicate specific genes to be examined. To determine the likelihood of detecting causative recessive mutations by wholeexome sequencing (WES), we analyzed individuals with CAKUT from 33 different consanguineous families. Using homozygosity mapping andWES, we identified the causative mutations in nine of the 33 families studied (27%). We detected recessive mutations in nine known disease-causing genes: ZBTB24, WFS1, HPSE2, ATRX, ASPH,AGXT,AQP2, CTNS, andPKHD1.Notably,whenmutated, these genes cause multiorgan syndromes that may include CAKUT as a feature (syndromic CAKUT) or cause renal diseases that may manifest as phenocopies of CAKUT. None of the above monogenic disease-causing genes were suspected on clinical grounds before this study. Follow-up clinical characterization of those patients allowed us to revise and detect relevant new clinical features in a more appropriate pathogenetic context. Thus, applyingWES to the diagnostic approach in CAKUT provides opportunities for an accurate and early etiology-based diagnosis and improved clinical management.
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