Exposure assessment and risk characterization from trace elements following soil ingestion by children exposed to playgrounds, parks and picnic areas

Mert Guney, Gerald J. Zagury, Nurten Dogan, Turgut T. Onay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

123 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Soil ingestion is an important pathway for exposure to metals for children. The objectives of this study were to: (1) Assess urban soil contamination by selected metals (As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in 24 sites (127 soil samples) in Istanbul, Turkey, (2) Investigate relationships between soil contamination and site properties (type of site, equipment type, soil properties), (3) Characterize the risk for critically contaminated sites by taking oral metal bioaccessibility and two soil ingestion scenarios into account. Average metal concentrations were similar in the 17 playgrounds, 4 parks and 3 picnic areas sampled. Five out of 24 sites (all equipped with treated wood structures) had systematically higher contamination than background for As, Cu, Cr or Zn, and measured concentrations generally exceeded Turkish regulatory values. High Cu concentrations in these sites were attributed to the leaching from wood treated with Cu-containing preservatives other than chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Risk characterization for these sites showed that hazard index was below one in both involuntary soil ingestion and soil pica behaviour scenarios for all metals. However, probabilistic carcinogenic risk for As uptake exceeded 1×10-6 in both scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that soil ingestion rate was the most important parameter affecting risk estimation. Risk from As uptake for children from soils of parks, playgrounds and picnic areas may be serious, especially if soil pica behaviour is present.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)656-664
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Volume182
Issue number1-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2010
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Children's health
  • Heavy metals
  • Risk assessment
  • Treated wood
  • Urban soils

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal

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