Feedback-Based SSK Modulation: Constellation Design and Performance Results

Ugrasen Singh, Manav R. Bhatnagar, Theodoros A. Tsiftsis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this article, we propose a limited feedback-based space-shift keying (SSK) modulation scheme where transmitter (Tx) obtains partial channel state information (CSI) via a feedback link from receiver (Rx). More specifically, the Tx does not receive perfect information of channel gain, but is aware only of channel gain ordering. Based on the received partial CSI, the Tx adapts the spatial constellation and allocates different transmit weights to each transmit antenna representing spatial constellation points. Furthermore, the power adapted spatial constellation points are encoded by using gray coding scheme, which results in unit hamming distance between adjacent spatial constellation points. Next, a multiple-input single-output (MISO) system with maximum-likelihood detection is investigated. Accurate expressions for the average bit error rate (ABER) for ${2}\times {1}$ and ${4}\times {1}$ MISO systems over Rayleigh fading channel are derived. Further, an approximate expression for the ABER of a generalized MISO system is also obtained. It is shown analytically that the ABER performance of the proposed SSK scheme can be improved by applying a non-uniform power allocation to make transmit links more distinguishable at the Rx. Moreover, we demonstrate analytically that the proposed scheme attains a diversity order which is twice of the conventional SSK scheme. Numerical results, corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations, verify the proposed analysis and clearly highlight that, the proposed scheme significantly outperforms existing closed-loop spatial constellation-based schemes relying on full CSI in Tx and conventional open-loop SSK scheme.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9169914
Pages (from-to)6902-6917
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Communications
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020


  • Average bit error rate
  • feedback
  • MISO
  • ML-detection
  • Rayleigh fading
  • space-shift keying

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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