Gene polymorphism and total genetic score in martial arts athletes with different athletic qualifications

Anna Vostrikova, Victoria Pechenkina, Maria Danilova, Svetlana Boronnikova, Ruslan Kalendar

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Abstract

The personalized approach in sports genetics implies considering the allelic variants of genes in polymorphic loci when adjusting the training process of athletes. The personalized approach is used both in sports genetics and in medicine to identify the influence of genotype on the mani-festations of human physical qualities that allow to achieve high sports results or to assess the impact of genotype on the development and course of diseases. The impact of genes of the ren-in-angiotensin and kinin-bradykinin systems in the development of cardiovascular disease in athletes has not been defined. This study aims to determine the polymorphisms of four genes (ACE, BDKRB2, PPARGC1A and NOS3) and the total genetic score to reveal the predisposition to the formation of physical qualities in martial arts athletes with different athletic abilities. The products of these four genes are involved in the control of blood pressure. The allelic variants of these genes are associated with the development of the physical quality "endurance" and have an indirect influence on the formation of speed and power qualities. The total genetic score (TGS: from 0 to 100 arbitrary units) was calculated from the genotype score in each polymorphism. The ath-letes were divided into Group I with high and Group II with low qualifications depending on their sports success. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are identified through restriction en-donucleases cleavage for PCR amplicons for discriminating between alleles of the target genes ACE (rs4646994), BDKRB2 (rs5810761), PPARGC1A (rs8192673) and NOS3 (rs1799983). Significant differences between the allelic variants of target genes and athletic ability were found between Group I and Group II for genotype G/G of NOS3 gene and genotypes Gly/Gly and Gly/Ser of PPARGC1A gene. The data obtained confirm that athletes with unfavourable genotypes are ex-cluded in the screening phase because their endurance is not fully developed to the required level in martial arts. Martial arts athletes with the highest TGS have the highest skill level. Polymorphic loci of four genes whose products are involved in blood pressure control (ACE, BDKRB2, NOS3 and PPARGC1A) can be used in martial arts not only to determine predisposition to cardiovascular disease but also to predispose to the development of speed and power qualities and endurance. The total genetic score can serve as a tool for predicting athletic success.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1677
JournalGenes
Volume13
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 19 2022

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