Generalized PT symmetry and real spectra

Carl M. Bender, M. V. Berry, Aikaterini Mandilara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

142 Citations (Scopus)


The fact that eigenvalues of PT-symmetric Hamiltonians H can be real for some values of a parameter and complex for others is explained by showing that the matrix elements of H, and hence the secular equation, are real, not only for PT but also for any antiunitary operator A satisfying A2k = 1 with k odd. The argument is illustrated by a 2 × 2 matrix Hamiltonian, and two examples of the generalization are given.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)L467-L471
JournalJournal of Physics A: Mathematical and General
Issue number31
Publication statusPublished - Aug 9 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Mathematical Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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