A total of 132 Rhizoctonia isolates were recovered from red cabbage plants with root rot and wirestem symptoms in the province of Samsun (Turkey) between 2018 and 2019. Based on the sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region located between the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes and including the nuclear staining, these 124 isolates were assigned to multinucleate Rhizoctonia solani and 8 were binucleate Rhizoctonia. The most prevalent anastomosis group (AG) was AG 4 (84%), which was subdivided into AG 4 HG-I (81%) and AG 4 HG-III (3%), followed by AG 5 (10%) and AG-A (6%), respectively. The unweighted pair group method phylogenetic tree resulting from the data of 68 isolates with the inter-PBS amplification DNA profiling method based on interspersed retrotransposon element sequences confirmed the differentiation of AGs with a higher resolution. In the greenhouse experiment with representative isolates (n = 24) from AGs on red cabbage (cv. Rondale), the disease severity index was between 3.33 and 4.0 for multinucleate AGs isolates and ranged from 2.5 to 3.17 for AG-A isolates. In the reaction of six red cabbage cultivars to one isolate for each AG was tested using a similar method, and all cultivars were susceptible to AG 4 HG-I and AG 4 HG-III isolates. Redriver and Remale were moderately susceptible while Rescue, Travero, Integro, and Rondale were susceptible to the AG 5 isolate. The results indicate that the most prevalent and aggressive AGs of Rhizoctonia are devastating pathogens to red cabbage, which means that rotation with non-host-crops for these AGs may be the most effective control strategy. This is the first comprehensive study of Rhizoctonia isolates in red cabbage using a molecular approach to assess genetic diversity using iPBS amplified DNA profiling.