Growing pains: graduate students grappling with English medium instruction in Kazakhstan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigates graduate students’ experiences with English
medium instruction (EMI) in Kazakhstan. The data reported here
were collected through an online survey conducted in 10 public
and private universities in Kazakhstan in March–July 2021. This
survey received a total of 320 responses from graduate students
with diverse age, gender, disciplinary, educational, and linguistic
profiles. Through a combination of closed and open-ended questions,
we aimed to determine how graduate students coped with
EMI in their programs. We found that most respondents are struggling
with various aspects of academic reading and writing. Low
English proficiency is often cited as a cause of these struggles, but
so are specific elements of academic writing. Inadequate socialization
in English together with gaps in existing language and writing
support are also seen as factors. Overall, the data confirm the
existence of deep ecological tensions between policy aspirations
and enactment conditions on the ground.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAsian Englishes
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Academic writing; English medium instruction ; multilingual graduate students; Kazakhstan; trilingual policy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics


Dive into the research topics of 'Growing pains: graduate students grappling with English medium instruction in Kazakhstan'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this