Growth factors and cytokines in patients with long bone fractures and associated spinal cord injury

Fathy G. Khallaf, Elijah O. Kehinde, Ahmed Mostafa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The aim of the study was to test the effect of acute traumatic spinal cord injury of quadriplegia or paraplegia on bone healing in patients with associated long bone fractures and to investigate the molecular and cellular events of the underlying mechanism for a possible acceleration. Methods: Healing indicators of long bone fractures and growth factors, IGF-II, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Activin-A, and cytokine I-L-1, in the patients' blood were calculated and measured for 21 patients with spinal cord injuries and associated long bone fractures in prospective controlled study and compared to 20 patients with only spinal cord injuries, 30 patients with only long bone fractures, and 30 healthy volunteers. Results: The study results showed that long bone fractures in patients with associated acute traumatic spinal cord injury of quadriplegia or paraplegia heal more expectedly, faster, and with exuberant florid union callus (P > 0.001) and show statistically significant higher levels of growth factors like PDGF, VEGF, Activin-A, and cytokine I-L-1, along the 3 weeks of follow-up (P > 0.005). I-IGF-II showed statistically significant subnormal level along the whole follow-up period in the same patients (P > 0.005). Conclusion: We concluded that long bone fractures in spinal cord injury patients heal more expectedly, faster, and with exuberant and florid callus formation; growth factors like IGF-II, PDGF, VEGF, Activin-A, and cytokine I-L-I have roles as mediators, in molecular events and as byproducts of the subtle mechanism of accelerated osteogenesis in these patients and may represent therapeutic potentials to serve as agents to enhance bone repair.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-75
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Orthopaedics
Volume13
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Bone Fractures
Spinal Cord Injuries
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Cytokines
Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Quadriplegia
Paraplegia
Bony Callus
Bone and Bones
Bone Development
Osteogenesis
Healthy Volunteers
Prospective Studies

Keywords

  • Accelerated bone healing
  • Cytokines
  • Growth factors
  • Long bone fractures
  • Spinal cord injuries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

Growth factors and cytokines in patients with long bone fractures and associated spinal cord injury. / Khallaf, Fathy G.; Kehinde, Elijah O.; Mostafa, Ahmed.

In: Journal of Orthopaedics, Vol. 13, No. 2, 01.06.2016, p. 69-75.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Khallaf, Fathy G. ; Kehinde, Elijah O. ; Mostafa, Ahmed. / Growth factors and cytokines in patients with long bone fractures and associated spinal cord injury. In: Journal of Orthopaedics. 2016 ; Vol. 13, No. 2. pp. 69-75.
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