Heavy metals in toys and low-cost jewelry

Critical review of U.S. and Canadian legislations and recommendations for testing

Mert Guney, Gerald J. Zagury

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

High metal contamination in toys and low-cost jewelry is a widespread problem, and metals can become bioavailable, especially via oral pathway due to common child-specific behaviors of mouthing and pica. In this review, the U.S., Canadian, and European Union (EU) legislations on metals in toys and jewelry are evaluated. A literature review on content, bioavailability, children's exposure, and testing of metals in toys and low-cost jewelry is provided. A list of priority metals is presented, and research needs and legislative recommendations are addressed. While the U.S. and Canadian legislations put emphasis on lead exposure prevention, other toxic elements like arsenic and cadmium in toy materials are not regulated except in paint and coatings. The EU legislation is more comprehensive in terms of contaminants and scientific approach. Current toy testing procedures do not fully consider metal bioavailability. In vitro bioaccessibility tests developed and validated for toys and corresponding metal bioaccessibility data in different toy matrices are lacking. The U.S. and Canadian legislations should put more emphasis on metal bioavailability and on other metals in addition to lead. A two-step management approach with mandatory testing of toys for total metal concentrations followed by voluntary bioaccessibility testing could be implemented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4265-4274
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume46
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 17 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Heavy Metals
legislation
Metals
heavy metal
metal
Testing
cost
Costs
bioavailability
European Union
recommendation
Poisons
Arsenic
Cadmium
literature review
Paint
arsenic
coating
Contamination
cadmium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Heavy metals in toys and low-cost jewelry : Critical review of U.S. and Canadian legislations and recommendations for testing. / Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 46, No. 8, 17.04.2012, p. 4265-4274.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{db2c9839756e433fa0cb7cd0f903294b,
title = "Heavy metals in toys and low-cost jewelry: Critical review of U.S. and Canadian legislations and recommendations for testing",
abstract = "High metal contamination in toys and low-cost jewelry is a widespread problem, and metals can become bioavailable, especially via oral pathway due to common child-specific behaviors of mouthing and pica. In this review, the U.S., Canadian, and European Union (EU) legislations on metals in toys and jewelry are evaluated. A literature review on content, bioavailability, children's exposure, and testing of metals in toys and low-cost jewelry is provided. A list of priority metals is presented, and research needs and legislative recommendations are addressed. While the U.S. and Canadian legislations put emphasis on lead exposure prevention, other toxic elements like arsenic and cadmium in toy materials are not regulated except in paint and coatings. The EU legislation is more comprehensive in terms of contaminants and scientific approach. Current toy testing procedures do not fully consider metal bioavailability. In vitro bioaccessibility tests developed and validated for toys and corresponding metal bioaccessibility data in different toy matrices are lacking. The U.S. and Canadian legislations should put more emphasis on metal bioavailability and on other metals in addition to lead. A two-step management approach with mandatory testing of toys for total metal concentrations followed by voluntary bioaccessibility testing could be implemented.",
author = "Mert Guney and Zagury, {Gerald J.}",
year = "2012",
month = "4",
day = "17",
doi = "10.1021/es203470x",
language = "English",
volume = "46",
pages = "4265--4274",
journal = "Environmental Science & Technology",
issn = "0013-936X",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Heavy metals in toys and low-cost jewelry

T2 - Critical review of U.S. and Canadian legislations and recommendations for testing

AU - Guney, Mert

AU - Zagury, Gerald J.

PY - 2012/4/17

Y1 - 2012/4/17

N2 - High metal contamination in toys and low-cost jewelry is a widespread problem, and metals can become bioavailable, especially via oral pathway due to common child-specific behaviors of mouthing and pica. In this review, the U.S., Canadian, and European Union (EU) legislations on metals in toys and jewelry are evaluated. A literature review on content, bioavailability, children's exposure, and testing of metals in toys and low-cost jewelry is provided. A list of priority metals is presented, and research needs and legislative recommendations are addressed. While the U.S. and Canadian legislations put emphasis on lead exposure prevention, other toxic elements like arsenic and cadmium in toy materials are not regulated except in paint and coatings. The EU legislation is more comprehensive in terms of contaminants and scientific approach. Current toy testing procedures do not fully consider metal bioavailability. In vitro bioaccessibility tests developed and validated for toys and corresponding metal bioaccessibility data in different toy matrices are lacking. The U.S. and Canadian legislations should put more emphasis on metal bioavailability and on other metals in addition to lead. A two-step management approach with mandatory testing of toys for total metal concentrations followed by voluntary bioaccessibility testing could be implemented.

AB - High metal contamination in toys and low-cost jewelry is a widespread problem, and metals can become bioavailable, especially via oral pathway due to common child-specific behaviors of mouthing and pica. In this review, the U.S., Canadian, and European Union (EU) legislations on metals in toys and jewelry are evaluated. A literature review on content, bioavailability, children's exposure, and testing of metals in toys and low-cost jewelry is provided. A list of priority metals is presented, and research needs and legislative recommendations are addressed. While the U.S. and Canadian legislations put emphasis on lead exposure prevention, other toxic elements like arsenic and cadmium in toy materials are not regulated except in paint and coatings. The EU legislation is more comprehensive in terms of contaminants and scientific approach. Current toy testing procedures do not fully consider metal bioavailability. In vitro bioaccessibility tests developed and validated for toys and corresponding metal bioaccessibility data in different toy matrices are lacking. The U.S. and Canadian legislations should put more emphasis on metal bioavailability and on other metals in addition to lead. A two-step management approach with mandatory testing of toys for total metal concentrations followed by voluntary bioaccessibility testing could be implemented.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84859845798&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84859845798&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/es203470x

DO - 10.1021/es203470x

M3 - Article

VL - 46

SP - 4265

EP - 4274

JO - Environmental Science & Technology

JF - Environmental Science & Technology

SN - 0013-936X

IS - 8

ER -