Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, tuberculosis and sexually-transmitted infections among HIV positive patients in Kazakhstan

Ainur Mukhatayeva, Aidana Mustafa, Natalya Dzissyuk, Alpamys Issanov, Bauyrzhan Bayserkin, Sten H. Vermund, Syed Ali

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In contrast with global trends, HIV prevalence in Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries has been rising in recent years. In this study, we analyzed hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), tuberculosis (TB) and sexually-transmitted (STI) co-infections among 500 HIV positive study participants recruited from all regions of Kazakhstan. Among our study participants, 27%, 8%, 2%, and 5% were coinfected with, respectively, HCV, TB, HBV, and STI. A considerable proportion of the study participants was also found with triple or quadruple infections of HCV/TB (12%), TB/STI (0.8%), HCV/STI (2%), HCV/HBV (1%), HBV/TB (0.4%), HBV/STI (0.2%), HBV/HCV/TB (0.4%), HBV/HCV/STI (0.2%), or HCV/TB/STI (0.2%). Strong associations were found of certain age groups, duration of HIV infection, and practices of injection drug use and sexual contact with PLWH, with co-infections of HIV/HCV and HIV/TB. The odds of having death was 4.07 times higher with TB/HIV as compared to other co-infections. Co-occurrence of HIV with HCV, HBV, and TB infections among participants of this study highlights the necessity of regular screening for HCV infection among HIV infected patients, together with implementation of vigilant vaccination protocols against HBV and TB. Additionally, persons who inject drugs especially need to be focused for harm reduction efforts that include opiate substitution therapy, needle or syringe exchange programs, regular screening, and increased availability of ART and direct acting antivirals.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13542
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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