How Efficient are LC3 and GGBFS-Contained Mortar Mixtures Submerged into Na2SO4 Solution against External Sulfate Attack at an early Age?

Islam Orynbassarov, Chang Seon Shon, Jong Ryeol Kim, Umut Bektimirova, Aidyn Tugelbayev

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is one of the most widely used construction materials in civil engineering infrastructure construction but it is susceptible to sulfate attack. One of the ways to improve the sulfate resistance of an OPC mortar/concrete is to replace a certain amount of OPC with different pozzolanic materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and metakaolin. The use of pozzolanic materials to mortar/concrete not only enhances durability but also reduces carbon dioxide (CO2) emission due to the less usage of OPC at the initial construction state. As considering these aspects, limestone calcined clay cement (LC3) has been developed in recent decades. However, the influence of LC3 on sulfate attack resistance has not been fully evaluated. Therefore, this study investigated the efficiency of LC3 mortar mixtures against sulfate attack at an early age (approximately 4.5 months) after two different curing periods, namely 1-day and 3-day curing, since the strength of the LC3 mixture is lower than OPC mixtures. To evaluate the synergistic effect of a combination of LC3 and GGBFS on the sulfate resistance, the LC3 and OPC mixtures containing 25% GGBFS were also assessed in terms of density, porosity, compressive strength, volumetric expansion, and weight changes. The experiment results show that the expansion of the LC3 mixture regardless of the addition of GGBFS and an initial curing strength made a plateau after a rapid increase up to 7 days, while the expansion of the OPC mixture kept increasing throughout the period. Furthermore, the addition of GGBFS to OPC or LC3 mixture provides the synergistic effect on reducing the expansion due to sulfate attack. Therefore, if LC3 mixture has high initial strength (min. 15 MPa) and dense microstructure to minimize the penetration of sulfate ion into the mixture, it is expected that LC3 mixture is more efficient than OPC mixture against the sulfate attack.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Title of host publicationKey Engineering Materials XI
PublisherTrans Tech Publications
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2021

Publication series

NameKey Engineering Materials
PublisherTrans Tech Publications Ltd


  • Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS)
  • Sulfate Attack
  • Limestone Calcined Clay Cement (LC3)
  • Eco-Efficient Cement
  • Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM)

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