Objective: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a common disorder in childhood. The aim of the study was to assess the association of atopy and endoscopic features with the presence of OME. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 287 children presenting with acute upper-airway infections persistent for at least ten days and tested through nasal endoscopy and skin-prick test. Results: Fifty-three patients had a diagnosis of OME; out of them, 23 showed acute rhinosinusitis, ten adenoiditis, and 20 both features. OME was diagnosed in 26 atopic children and in 27 nonatopic ones. On a multivariable analysis, allergic rhinitis, endoscopic pattern of adenoiditis, and younger age were all shown to be independently associated with a diagnosis of OME. Conclusions: This study suggests that allergic rhinitis and adenoiditis are significant risk factors to OME development and that the risk becomes higher when these two conditions are concomitantly present.
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