In this paper, systematic investigations on the fabrication and characterization of high performance TiO2 nanorod array perovskite solar cells (NAPSCs) are reported. The TiO2 nanorods, of length around 350-400 nm, were grown by solvothermal technique directly on glass/FTO substrates. From the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) we demonstrate that excellent crystallinity for the TiO2 nanorods can be produced using the solvothermal technique. Precursor consisting of a mixture of PbI2, CH3NH3I (MAI) and CH3NH3Cl (MACl) was used for the growth of perovskite thin films on the glass/FTO/TiO2 nanorod array (TiO2-NA) substrates. It is found that the morphology and quality of the perovskite layer depend strongly on the concentration of MACl in the precursor. Experimental studies on femtosecond transient absorption (fs-TA) indicate that the incorporation of TiO2-NA greatly enhances the collection efficiency of the photo-generated carriers due to substantial increase of interfacial area between the perovskite and TiO2-NA, leading to a reduction in carrier diffusion distance. It is shown to be the key factor that the proposed technique facilitates the use of a thicker perovskite absorber layer (∼500 nm) without compromising on the series resistance. Detailed J-V characterization shows that the NAPSCs exhibit negligible hysteresis with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) >19% for the champion device.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Materials Science(all)