MXene Sorbents for Removal of Urea from Dialysate: A Step toward the Wearable Artificial Kidney

Fayan Meng, Mykola Seredych, Chi Chen, Victor Gura, Sergey Mikhalovsky, Susan Sandeman, Ganesh Ingavle, Tochukwu Ozulumba, Ling Miao, Babak Anasori, Yury Gogotsi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


The wearable artificial kidney can deliver continuous ambulatory dialysis for more than 3 million patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the efficient removal of urea is a key challenge in miniaturizing the device and making it light and small enough for practical use. Here, we show that two-dimensional titanium carbide (MXene) with the composition of Ti3C2Tx, where Tx represents surface termination groups such as -OH, -O-, and -F, can adsorb urea, reaching 99% removal efficiency from aqueous solution and 94% from dialysate at the initial urea concentration of 30 mg/dL, with the maximum urea adsorption capacity of 10.4 mg/g at room temperature. When tested at 37 °C, we achieved a 2-fold increase in urea removal efficiency from dialysate, with the maximum urea adsorption capacity of 21.7 mg/g. Ti3C2Tx showed good hemocompatibility; it did not induce cell apoptosis or reduce the metabolizing cell fraction, indicating no impact on cell viability at concentrations of up to 200 μg/mL. The biocompatibility of Ti3C2Tx and its selectivity for urea adsorption from dialysate open a new opportunity in designing a miniaturized dialysate regeneration system for a wearable artificial kidney.

Original languageEnglish
JournalACS Nano
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2018


  • 2D materials
  • MXenes
  • adsorption
  • dialysate
  • urea
  • wearable artificial kidney

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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