Optimizing the development of modern molecular vaccines requires a complex series of interdisciplinary efforts involving basic scientists, immunologists, molecular biologists, clinical vaccinologists, bioinformaticians and epidemiologists. This review summarizes some of the major issues that must be carefully considered. The intent of the authors is to briefly describe key components of the development process to give the reader an overview of the challenges faced from vaccine concept to vaccine delivery. Every vaccine requires unique features based on the biology of the pathogen, the nature of the disease and the target population for vaccination. This review presents general concepts relevant for the design and development of ideal vaccines protective against diverse pathogens.
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