Land application of sewage sludge may be the least energy consuming and the most cost-effective means of sludge disposal or utilization. However, the major technical problem with land application of sludge concerns the high concentrations of heavy metals. These metals may be leached and enter the ecosystem, the food chain, and eventually the human population. This paper deals with the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge compost using natural zeolite clinoptilolite, in respect to the particle size. The final results indicate that heavy metals can be sufficiently removed by using 25% w/w of zeolite with particle size of 3.3-4.0 mm. Pore clogging and structural damage in smaller particle sizes is probably the reason for lower uptake of metals by the latter.
- Metal uptake
- Pore clogging
- Sludge composting
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry