Purpose. To determine the degree of pain and discomfort associated with transrectal sonography (TRS)-guided biopsy of the prostate and to analyze the complications associated with this procedure. Methods. Three hundred men referred as part of an investigation to exclude prostate cancer were studied. The reasons for referral were suspected prostate cancer due to increased serum prostate-specific antigen level (>4 ng/ml), the finding of a palpable nodule or greater firmness of one prostatic lobe than the other on digital rectal examination, or the finding of a suspicious area of neoplasm of the prostate on TRS biopsy. All TRS-guided biopsies were performed as outpatient procedures without anesthesia. Ciprofloxacin prophylaxis was used in all patients before biopsy. Tolerance of the procedure was recorded immediately after the examination and graded on a scale of 0-4 as follows: 0, no pain; 1, very mild pain; 2, moderate pain; 3, severe pain; 4, intolerable pain. Complications recorded in the first week after the procedure were analyzed. They included mild pain, self-limiting hematuria, hematospermia, rectal bleeding, severe hematuria, septicemia, severe hemorrhage of the anus, and vasovagal attack. Results. Out of 300 TRS-guided biopsies, 10 early complications were recorded. The most frequent was septicemia, which was seen in 5 cases (1.7%). Hematuria occured in 29 patients, 3 of which were severe. Rectal bleeding and vasovagal attack occurred in 1 patient each. All patients made a full recovery with appropriate conservative management. Ten cases (3.33%) of severe pain (grade 3) and intolerable pain (grade 4) were observed. Three out of these 10 patients completed the procedure. The procedure was terminated in 1 patient, and 6 patients required local anesthetic due to perianal disease. Conclusions. TRS-guided prostate biopsy can be performed without local anesthesia in 90% of patients. Prophylactic antibiotics are mandatory to minimize approximately infectious complications.
- Patient tolerance
- Prostate biopsy
- Transrectal sonography
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging