Perceived safety in physical human–robot interaction—A survey

Matteo Rubagotti, Inara Tusseyeva, Sara Baltabayeva, Danna Summers, Anara Sandygulova

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


This review paper focuses on different aspects of perceived safety for a number of autonomous physical systems. This is a major aspect of robotics research, as more and more applications allow humans and autonomous systems to share their space, with crucial implications both on safety and on its perception. The alternative terms used to express related concepts (e.g., psychological safety, trust, comfort, stress, fear, and anxiety) are listed and explained. Then, the available methods to assess perceived safety (i.e., questionnaires, physiological measurements, behavioral assessment, and direct input devices) are described. Six categories of autonomous systems are considered (industrial poly-articulated manipulators, indoor mobile robots, mobile manipulators, humanoid robots, drones, and autonomous vehicles), providing an overview of the main themes related to perceived safety in the specific domain, a description of selected works, and an analysis of how motion and characteristics of the system influence the perception of safety. The survey also discusses experimental duration and location of the reviewed papers, and the connection between perceived safety and safety standards.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104047
JournalRobotics and Autonomous Systems
Publication statusPublished - May 2022


  • Comfort
  • Perceived safety
  • Physical human robot interaction
  • Self-driving cars
  • Trust
  • UAVs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • General Mathematics
  • Computer Science Applications


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