Performance evaluation of moment-based watermarking methods: A review

E. D. Tsougenis, G. A. Papakostas, D. E. Koulouriotis, V. D. Tourassis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Citations (Scopus)


This paper includes a theoretical analysis and performance investigation of representative moment-based watermarking systems. The main contribution of this work, along with the review of the moment-based watermarking algorithms' main properties (advantages and disadvantages), is the sensitivity analysis of those methods regarding some crucial parameters. Through a designed set of specific experiments, the influence of moment order and moment family (Zernike, Pseudo-Zernike, Wavelet, Krawtchouk, Tchebichef, Legendre, Fourier-Mellin) on each methods' performance is investigated and evaluated by applying geometric and signal processing attacks through the well-known benchmark Stirmark. Moreover, a comparative study regarding to methods' robustness, imperceptibility and algorithms' efficiency (time performance) is achieved. Experimental results show that moment's order calibration along with specific moment families enhances methods' performances and brings forth better tradeoffs between robustness and imperceptibility. Additionally, important issues which have been revealed through methods' implementation are discussed and proper separate solutions are proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1864-1884
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Systems and Software
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2012


  • Data hiding
  • Image authentication
  • Image watermarking
  • Orthogonal moments
  • Sensitivity analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Information Systems
  • Hardware and Architecture

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