Phylogeny and transpositional activity of Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in cereal genomes

B. M. Gribbon, S. R. Pearce, R. Kalendar, A. H. Schulman, L. Paulin, P. Jack, A. Kumar, A. J. Flavell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

90 Citations (Scopus)


The Tyl-copia group retrotransposon populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) have been characterised by degenerate PCR and sequence analysis of fragments of the reverse transcriptase genes. The barley population is comprised of a highly heterogeneous set of retrotransposons, together with a collection of sequences that are closely related to the BARE-1 element. Wheat also contains a highly diverse Tyl-copia retrotransposon population, together with a less prominent BARE-1 subgroup. These data have been combined with previously published Gramineae sequences to construct a composite phylogenetic tree for this class of retrotransposons in cereal grasses. The analysis indicates that the ancestral Gramineae genome contained a heterogeneous population of Tyl-copia group retrotransposons, the descendants of which have proliferated to differing degrees in present-day species. Lastly, the level of recent transpositional activity of two Tyl-copia elements has been estimated by measuring their insertional polymorphism within species. Both transposons are highly polymorphic within all species tested. These data suggest that transposition proficiency may be a common and evolutionarily stable feature of the Tyl-copia group retrotransposons of cereal grasses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)883-891
Number of pages9
JournalMolecular and General Genetics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Barley
  • copia
  • Retrotransposon
  • Transposable element
  • Wheat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics

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