PLASMA/LIQUID-Metal interactions during tokamak operation

A. Hassanein, J. P. Allain, Z. Insepov, I. Konkashbaev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

One of the critical technological challenges of future tokamak fusion devices is the ability for plasma-facing components to handle both normal and abnormal plasma/surface interaction events that compromise their lifetime and operation of the machine. Under normal operation plasma/surface interactions that are important include: sputtering, particle implantation and recycling, He pumping and ELM (edge localized modes)-induced erosion. In abnormal or off-normal operation: disruptions and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are important. To extend PFC lifetime under these conditions, liquid-metals have been considered as candidate PFCs (Plasma-Facing Components), including: liquid lithium, tin-lithium, gallium and tin. Liquid lithium has been measured to have nonlinear increase of physical sputtering with rise in temperature. Such increase can be a result of exposure to ELM-level particle fluxes. The significant increase in particle flux to the divertor and nearby PFCs can enhance sputtering erosion by an order of magnitude or more. In addition from the standpoint of hydrogen recycling and helium pumping liquid lithium appears to be a good candidate plasma-facing material (PFM). Advanced designs of first wall and divertor systems propose the application of liquid-metals as an alternate PFC to contend with high-heat flux constraints of large-scale tokamak devices. Additional issues include PFC operation under disruptions and long temporal instabilities such as VDEs. A comprehensive two-fluid model is developed to integrate core and SOL (scrape-off layer) parameters during ELMs with PFC surface evolution using the HEIGHTS package. Special emphasis is made on the application of lithium as a candidate plasma-facing liquid-metal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)686-697
Number of pages12
JournalFusion Science and Technology
Volume47
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2005
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Facings
Metals
Plasmas
metals
Lithium
liquid lithium
interactions
liquid metals
Liquid metals
Sputtering
Tin
sputtering
Beam plasma interactions
recycling
flux (rate)
surface reactions
erosion
Recycling
Erosion
tin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering

Cite this

Hassanein, A., Allain, J. P., Insepov, Z., & Konkashbaev, I. (2005). PLASMA/LIQUID-Metal interactions during tokamak operation. Fusion Science and Technology, 47(3), 686-697.

PLASMA/LIQUID-Metal interactions during tokamak operation. / Hassanein, A.; Allain, J. P.; Insepov, Z.; Konkashbaev, I.

In: Fusion Science and Technology, Vol. 47, No. 3, 04.2005, p. 686-697.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hassanein, A, Allain, JP, Insepov, Z & Konkashbaev, I 2005, 'PLASMA/LIQUID-Metal interactions during tokamak operation', Fusion Science and Technology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 686-697.
Hassanein A, Allain JP, Insepov Z, Konkashbaev I. PLASMA/LIQUID-Metal interactions during tokamak operation. Fusion Science and Technology. 2005 Apr;47(3):686-697.
Hassanein, A. ; Allain, J. P. ; Insepov, Z. ; Konkashbaev, I. / PLASMA/LIQUID-Metal interactions during tokamak operation. In: Fusion Science and Technology. 2005 ; Vol. 47, No. 3. pp. 686-697.
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