PM 2.5 and ultrafine particles emitted during heating of commercial cooking oils

M. A. Torkmahalleh, I. Goldasteh, Y. Zhao, N. M. Udochu, A. Rossner, P. K. Hopke, A. R. Ferro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Citations (Scopus)


Seven commercial cooking oils were investigated to determine the PM 2.5 mass and ultrafine particle (UFP) emission rates and emission fluxes (rates per area). The results of this study showed that at 197°C soybean, safflower, canola, and peanut oils produced lower PM 2.5 emission fluxes (6.1×10 5, 3.0×10 5, 5.4×10 5, and 3.9×10 5μg/min/m 2, respectively) than corn, coconut, and olive oils (2.7×10 6, 2.9×10 6, and 5.7×10 6μg/min/m 2, respectively). Similarly, the total particle number flux at 197°C was lower for soybean, safflower, and canola oils (3.5×10 13, 8.6×10 13, and 1.0×10 14#/min/m 2, respectively) than the corn, coconut, olive, and peanut oils (2.4×10 14, 1.4×10 14, 1.7×10 14, and 3.8×10 14#/min/m 2, respectively). In general, oils with a higher smoke temperature resulted in lower particle concentrations over the measured temperature range (131-197°C). The percentage of UFP (particle diameter D p 10-100nm) to total particles (D p 10-500nm) ranged from 76 to 99% for this temperature range. Particles below 10nm in diameter were not measured. The particle number size distribution showed a polydisperse behavior with major mode sizes ranging from 25nm (for peanut oil) to 82nm (for soybean oil) at an oil temperature of 197°C. Practical Implications: The study presents particle number and mass concentrations, size distributions, emission rates, and emission fluxes from heating common cooking oils. The emission rates and emission fluxes can be used as inputs to models for indirect exposure analysis studies. The study may also be used to provide guidance on choosing oils that result in lower emission rates when heated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)483-491
Number of pages9
JournalIndoor Air
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2012


  • Cooking oil
  • Emission flux
  • Frying
  • PM
  • Surface area
  • Ultrafine particles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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