Polyurea-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Synthesis, morphology, and Raman spectroscopy

Chao Gao, Yi Zheng Jin, Hao Kong, Raymond L D Whitby, Steve F A Acquah, G. Y. Chen, Huihong Qian, Achim Hartschuh, S. R P Silva, Simon Henley, Peter Fearon, Harold W. Kroto, David R M Walton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

210 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An in situ polycondensation approach was applied to functionalize multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), resulting in various linear or hyperbranched polycondensed polymers [e.g., polyureas, polyurethanes, and poly(urea-urethane)-bonded carbon nanotubes]. The quantity of the grafted polymer can be easily controlled by the feed ratio of monomers. As a typical example, the polyurea-functionalized MWNTs were measured and characterized in detail. The oxidized MWNTs (MWNT-COOH) were converted into acyl chloridefunctionalized MWNTs (MWNT-COCl) by reaction with neat thionyl chloride (SOCl 2). MWNT-COCl was reacted with excess 1,6-diaminohexane, affording amino-functionalized MWNTs (MWNT-NH:). In the presence of MWNT-NH 2, the polyurea was covalently coated onto the surfaces of the nanotube by in situ polycondensation of diisocyanate [e.g., 4,4′- methylenebis(phenylisocyanate)] and 1,6-diaminohexane, followed by the removal of free polymer via repeated filtering and solvent washing. The coated polyurea content can be controlled to some extent by adjusting the feed ratio of the isocyanato and amino groups. The structure and morphology of the resulting nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR, NMR, Raman, confocal Raman, TEM, EDS, and SEM measurements. The polyurea-coated MWNTs showed interesting self-assembled flator flowerlike morphologies in the solid state. The signals corresponding to that of the D and G bands of the carbon nanotubes were strongly attenuated after polyurea was chemically tethered to the MWNT surfaces. Comparative experiments showed that the grafted polymer species and structures have a strong effect on the Raman signals of polymer-functionalized MWNTs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11925-11932
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry B
Volume109
Issue number24
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 23 2005
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCN)
Raman spectroscopy
carbon nanotubes
synthesis
spectroscopy
1,6-diaminohexane
Polymers
Carbon Nanotubes
Polycondensation
polyurea
polymers
Carbon nanotubes
Polyurethanes
diisocyanates
Urethane
urethanes
Washing
Urea
dendrimers
washing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Cite this

Gao, C., Jin, Y. Z., Kong, H., Whitby, R. L. D., Acquah, S. F. A., Chen, G. Y., ... Walton, D. R. M. (2005). Polyurea-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Synthesis, morphology, and Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 109(24), 11925-11932. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp051642h

Polyurea-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes : Synthesis, morphology, and Raman spectroscopy. / Gao, Chao; Jin, Yi Zheng; Kong, Hao; Whitby, Raymond L D; Acquah, Steve F A; Chen, G. Y.; Qian, Huihong; Hartschuh, Achim; Silva, S. R P; Henley, Simon; Fearon, Peter; Kroto, Harold W.; Walton, David R M.

In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 109, No. 24, 23.06.2005, p. 11925-11932.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gao, C, Jin, YZ, Kong, H, Whitby, RLD, Acquah, SFA, Chen, GY, Qian, H, Hartschuh, A, Silva, SRP, Henley, S, Fearon, P, Kroto, HW & Walton, DRM 2005, 'Polyurea-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Synthesis, morphology, and Raman spectroscopy', Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 24, pp. 11925-11932. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp051642h
Gao, Chao ; Jin, Yi Zheng ; Kong, Hao ; Whitby, Raymond L D ; Acquah, Steve F A ; Chen, G. Y. ; Qian, Huihong ; Hartschuh, Achim ; Silva, S. R P ; Henley, Simon ; Fearon, Peter ; Kroto, Harold W. ; Walton, David R M. / Polyurea-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes : Synthesis, morphology, and Raman spectroscopy. In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 2005 ; Vol. 109, No. 24. pp. 11925-11932.
@article{8dbe53adf2ed4b4ab0a6fa0d4020795d,
title = "Polyurea-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Synthesis, morphology, and Raman spectroscopy",
abstract = "An in situ polycondensation approach was applied to functionalize multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), resulting in various linear or hyperbranched polycondensed polymers [e.g., polyureas, polyurethanes, and poly(urea-urethane)-bonded carbon nanotubes]. The quantity of the grafted polymer can be easily controlled by the feed ratio of monomers. As a typical example, the polyurea-functionalized MWNTs were measured and characterized in detail. The oxidized MWNTs (MWNT-COOH) were converted into acyl chloridefunctionalized MWNTs (MWNT-COCl) by reaction with neat thionyl chloride (SOCl 2). MWNT-COCl was reacted with excess 1,6-diaminohexane, affording amino-functionalized MWNTs (MWNT-NH:). In the presence of MWNT-NH 2, the polyurea was covalently coated onto the surfaces of the nanotube by in situ polycondensation of diisocyanate [e.g., 4,4′- methylenebis(phenylisocyanate)] and 1,6-diaminohexane, followed by the removal of free polymer via repeated filtering and solvent washing. The coated polyurea content can be controlled to some extent by adjusting the feed ratio of the isocyanato and amino groups. The structure and morphology of the resulting nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR, NMR, Raman, confocal Raman, TEM, EDS, and SEM measurements. The polyurea-coated MWNTs showed interesting self-assembled flator flowerlike morphologies in the solid state. The signals corresponding to that of the D and G bands of the carbon nanotubes were strongly attenuated after polyurea was chemically tethered to the MWNT surfaces. Comparative experiments showed that the grafted polymer species and structures have a strong effect on the Raman signals of polymer-functionalized MWNTs.",
author = "Chao Gao and Jin, {Yi Zheng} and Hao Kong and Whitby, {Raymond L D} and Acquah, {Steve F A} and Chen, {G. Y.} and Huihong Qian and Achim Hartschuh and Silva, {S. R P} and Simon Henley and Peter Fearon and Kroto, {Harold W.} and Walton, {David R M}",
year = "2005",
month = "6",
day = "23",
doi = "10.1021/jp051642h",
language = "English",
volume = "109",
pages = "11925--11932",
journal = "Journal of Physical Chemistry B Materials",
issn = "1520-6106",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "24",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Polyurea-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes

T2 - Synthesis, morphology, and Raman spectroscopy

AU - Gao, Chao

AU - Jin, Yi Zheng

AU - Kong, Hao

AU - Whitby, Raymond L D

AU - Acquah, Steve F A

AU - Chen, G. Y.

AU - Qian, Huihong

AU - Hartschuh, Achim

AU - Silva, S. R P

AU - Henley, Simon

AU - Fearon, Peter

AU - Kroto, Harold W.

AU - Walton, David R M

PY - 2005/6/23

Y1 - 2005/6/23

N2 - An in situ polycondensation approach was applied to functionalize multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), resulting in various linear or hyperbranched polycondensed polymers [e.g., polyureas, polyurethanes, and poly(urea-urethane)-bonded carbon nanotubes]. The quantity of the grafted polymer can be easily controlled by the feed ratio of monomers. As a typical example, the polyurea-functionalized MWNTs were measured and characterized in detail. The oxidized MWNTs (MWNT-COOH) were converted into acyl chloridefunctionalized MWNTs (MWNT-COCl) by reaction with neat thionyl chloride (SOCl 2). MWNT-COCl was reacted with excess 1,6-diaminohexane, affording amino-functionalized MWNTs (MWNT-NH:). In the presence of MWNT-NH 2, the polyurea was covalently coated onto the surfaces of the nanotube by in situ polycondensation of diisocyanate [e.g., 4,4′- methylenebis(phenylisocyanate)] and 1,6-diaminohexane, followed by the removal of free polymer via repeated filtering and solvent washing. The coated polyurea content can be controlled to some extent by adjusting the feed ratio of the isocyanato and amino groups. The structure and morphology of the resulting nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR, NMR, Raman, confocal Raman, TEM, EDS, and SEM measurements. The polyurea-coated MWNTs showed interesting self-assembled flator flowerlike morphologies in the solid state. The signals corresponding to that of the D and G bands of the carbon nanotubes were strongly attenuated after polyurea was chemically tethered to the MWNT surfaces. Comparative experiments showed that the grafted polymer species and structures have a strong effect on the Raman signals of polymer-functionalized MWNTs.

AB - An in situ polycondensation approach was applied to functionalize multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), resulting in various linear or hyperbranched polycondensed polymers [e.g., polyureas, polyurethanes, and poly(urea-urethane)-bonded carbon nanotubes]. The quantity of the grafted polymer can be easily controlled by the feed ratio of monomers. As a typical example, the polyurea-functionalized MWNTs were measured and characterized in detail. The oxidized MWNTs (MWNT-COOH) were converted into acyl chloridefunctionalized MWNTs (MWNT-COCl) by reaction with neat thionyl chloride (SOCl 2). MWNT-COCl was reacted with excess 1,6-diaminohexane, affording amino-functionalized MWNTs (MWNT-NH:). In the presence of MWNT-NH 2, the polyurea was covalently coated onto the surfaces of the nanotube by in situ polycondensation of diisocyanate [e.g., 4,4′- methylenebis(phenylisocyanate)] and 1,6-diaminohexane, followed by the removal of free polymer via repeated filtering and solvent washing. The coated polyurea content can be controlled to some extent by adjusting the feed ratio of the isocyanato and amino groups. The structure and morphology of the resulting nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR, NMR, Raman, confocal Raman, TEM, EDS, and SEM measurements. The polyurea-coated MWNTs showed interesting self-assembled flator flowerlike morphologies in the solid state. The signals corresponding to that of the D and G bands of the carbon nanotubes were strongly attenuated after polyurea was chemically tethered to the MWNT surfaces. Comparative experiments showed that the grafted polymer species and structures have a strong effect on the Raman signals of polymer-functionalized MWNTs.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=22444449454&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=22444449454&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/jp051642h

DO - 10.1021/jp051642h

M3 - Article

C2 - 16852469

AN - SCOPUS:22444449454

VL - 109

SP - 11925

EP - 11932

JO - Journal of Physical Chemistry B Materials

JF - Journal of Physical Chemistry B Materials

SN - 1520-6106

IS - 24

ER -