Cardiovascular disease is one of the main burdens of healthcare systems worldwide. Nevertheless, assessing cardiovascular risk in both apparently healthy individuals and low/high-risk patients remains a difficult issue. Already established biomarkers (e.g. brain natriuretic peptide, troponin) have significantly improved the assessment of major cardiovascular events and diseases but cannot be applied to all patients and in some cases do not provide sufficiently accurate information. In this context, new potential biomarkers that reflect various underlying pathophysiological cardiac and vascular modifications are needed. Also, a multiple biomarker evaluation that shows changes in the cardiovascular state is of interest. This review describes the role of selected markers of vascular inflammation, atherosclerosis, atherothrombosis, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular fibrosis in the pathogenesis and prognosis of cardiovascular disease: The potential use of cardiotrophin-1, leptin, adiponectin, resistin and galectin-3 as biomarkers for various cardiovascular conditions is discussed.
- Cardiovascular disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas