Practical configured Microtremor Array Measurements (MAM) for geological investigation of underground space

Taeseo Ku, Palanidoss Subramaniam, Yunhuo Zhang, Sung-Woo Moon, Xiao Wei, Ean Seong Huang, Jeyatharan Kumarasamy, Kok Hun Goh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Underground space utilization is becoming increasingly essential for modern metropolitan cities like Singapore.
Mapping of soil / rock interface from traditional borehole investigation is expensive and difficult to carry out due to
numerous physical constraints within a built-up city. Boreholes are often far apart resulting in many unforeseen ground
conditions during future excavation. For fast, economical, and efficient bedrock survey, geophysical methods are
sometimes employed as possible alternatives. This paper aims to investigate some practical details in applying
Microtremor Array Measurement (MAM), as a non-invasive surface wave survey for mapping soil / rock interface in
Singapore. It covers critical configurations in field data acquisition with practical recommendation for array
construction. 30 in-situ MAM tests have been carried out in two major geological formation of Singapore. From the
results, a standard shear wave velocity (Vs) of 500 m/s is found suitable for interpreting the soil / rock interface for both
Bukit Timah Granite and Jurong Formation. The method does not predict well when soft Kallang formation deposits
are present. Other limitations are also discussed in later part of this paper. Conclusions and practical
recommendations are made with constructive guidance to the industry. The proposed Vs based method with
associated guidelines and limitations shall be used to create the digital geological database; especially for rock
profiling in an urban environment.
Original languageEnglish
JournalUnderground Space
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020


  • Array configuration
  • MAM
  • non-invasive site investigation
  • soil/rock interface
  • surface wave survey

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Practical configured Microtremor Array Measurements (MAM) for geological investigation of underground space'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this