Predicting uniaxial compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and index properties of rocks using the Schmidt hammer

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The Schmidt hammer test is a non-destructive method which can be used in both laboratory and field to provide a quick and relatively inexpensive measure of rock hardness. The study investigated the relationship between the Schmidt hardness and modulus of elasticity, uniaxial compressive strength and index properties of nine types of rock including travertine, limestone, dolomitic limestone and schist. The empirical equations developed indicated the Schmidt hardness rebound values have a reliable relationship with the uniaxial compressive strength of rock (r = 0.92). Comparing the results with those reported by other researchers, it is concluded that no single relationship can be considered reliable for all rock types. Whilst the equations developed in this study may be useful at a preliminary stage of design, they should be used with caution and only for the specified rock types.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55-63
Number of pages9
JournalBulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2009
Externally publishedYes



  • Index properties
  • Modulus of elasticity
  • Schmidt hardness
  • Uniaxial compressive strength

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Geology

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