Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is now a well-established cause of cervical cancer. There are more than 100 HPV types, among which about a dozen types are carcinogenic. Cancer of the cervix uteri is the 4th most common cancer among women worldwide, and the 2nd among women of all ages in Kazakhstan, where 6.82 million women are at risk for cervical cancer (female population aged >=15 yrs). The incidence rates of cervical cancer in Kazakhstan were 32.8 in 2016 with 2,789 new cases and 982 deaths from cervical cancer annually. Screening of women for HPV and vaccination can prevent cancer development. Previous studies detected total HPV high-risk infection in 28.5% of the cases with high prevalence of HPV types 16 and 18. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence of HPV genotypes in Pap smear samples of women who are at risk to developing cervical cancer. Materials and Methods Pap smear materials were obtained from patients who visited the outpatient gynecological clinic at the University Medical Center in Astana. Microscopic examination of these Pap smear samples was done to detect cytological abnormalities, and HPV genotyping. Results and Discussion A total of 140 samples from women aged 18-59 were analyzed for abnormal cytology and HPV genotype presence. Average age of onset of sexual activity was 22. Data of patients’ history revealed that 16% had different types of pelvic inflammatory diseases. Microscopic examination showed that 79% of the samples had normal cytology, while almost 13% had CIN I, about 5% had CIN II, and 3% had CIN III high grade abnormal cytology. HPV genotyping showed that the prevalent genotypes were HPV 16 and 18. The analysis revealed that 18% of the samples had CIN cytology and presence of HPV, while 39% had CIN cytology and negative HPV; while 33% had HPV only and 10% CIN only. Conclusions This study determined the circulating HPV genotypes, as well as association between HPV infection and abnormal cytology from Pap smear. The results will be validated with increased number of sample size in a larger study. Overall, this study will help to strengthen and guide health policy implementation of primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention strategies in the country.
|Published - Jul 2017