Prevalence of Impaired Fasting Glucose and Type 2 Diabetes in Kazakhstan: Findings From Large Study

Binur Orazumbekova, Alpamys Issanov, Kuralay Atageldiyeva, Salim Berkinbayev, Gulnara Junusbekova, Laura Danyarova, Zhanmedet Shyman, Akmaral Tashmanova, Antonio Sarria-Santamera

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a serious public health problem. A large proportion of patients with T2DM are unaware of their condition. People with undiagnosed T2DM are at a greater risk of developing complications, whereas prediabetes has an elevated risk of becoming T2DM. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), undiagnosed and prior-diagnosed T2DM in Kazakhstan. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four geographically remote regions using the WHO STEP survey instrument. The status of T2DM of 4,753 participants was determined using the WHO diagnostic criteria based on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level. As a result, the survey-weighted prevalence of IFG was 1.9% (95% CI 1.1%; 3.5%) and of T2DM was 8.0% (95% CI 3.8; 15.9). A total of 54% of T2DM have been newly diagnosed with T2DM. Being 55-64 years old (OR = 2.71, 95% CI 1.12; 6.60) and having lowered HDL-C level (OR = 3.72, 95% CI 1.68; 8.23) were found to be independent predictors for IFG. Being older than 45 years, a female (OR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.39; 0.83), having high waist circumference, was associated with newly diagnosed T2DM. Whereas, the age older than 45 years, high waist circumference, and family history of diabetes (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.64; 3.54) were associated with preexisting T2DM. This study shows a high prevalence of IFG and a high proportion of newly diagnosed T2DM in Kazakhstan. A series of risk factors identified in the study may be used to strengthen appropriate identification of IFG or undiagnosed patients in healthcare settings to deliver either preventive or therapeutic interventions aimed to reduce the incidence of T2DM or the delay of their complications. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations in our population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)810153
JournalFrontiers in Public Health
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Blood Glucose
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology
  • Fasting
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kazakhstan/epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Prediabetic State/diagnosis
  • Prevalence


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