Prevalence of Smoking Various Tobacco Types in the Kazakhstani Adult Population in 2021: A Cross-Sectional Study

Natalya Glushkova, Dariga Smailova, Zhanar Namazbayeva, Gulmira Mukasheva, Ayaulym Zhamakurova, Asylzhan Kuanyshkalieva, Indira K Karibayeva, Almagul Kauysheva, Nurzhamal Otyzbayeva, Maksut Kulzhanov, Yuliya Semenova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Tobacco use was the second-leading risk factor for death, accounting for 15.4% of total deaths in 2019. In 2019, 20.4% (2.7 million) of the adult population in Kazakhstan, 36.5% of men, and 6.0% of women smoked tobacco. A cross-sectional study of a random sample (n = 1201) was conducted between October and December 2021 in accordance with the STEPwise approach. The tobacco-use questions were focused on current and previous smoking status, initiation and duration of smoking, amount of tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke, and information related to quitting smoking. From 20.8% of smokers, 93.8% of men and 80.2% of women use tobacco products daily, χ2 = 10.983, p-score < 0.001. The earliest initiation of smoking was 6 years old. The prevalence of smoking tobacco products in Kazakhstan is 20.8%, which means that every fifth adult smokes. In addition, the proportion of smokers among men was 38.5%, and among women, it was 10.1%. A total of 93.8% of men and 80.2% of women smoked daily. The role of healthcare professionals in smoking prevention is very low, and only 16.9% of respondents have been advised to quit smoking in the last 12 months. New interventions for tobacco smoking prevention are urgently needed in Kazakhstan.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 13 2023


  • Male
  • Humans
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Child
  • Tobacco
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Prevalence
  • Tobacco Products
  • Tobacco Use
  • Smoking/epidemiology
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution


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