Private Supplementary Tutoring at a Transition Point in Kazakhstan's Education System: Its Scale, Nature, and Policy Implications

Anas Hajar, Aida Sagintayeva, Zhanna Izekenova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

This quantitative study examined the scale, nature and effectiveness of private supplementary tutoring (PT) at one of the transition points in Kazakhstan’s education system during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were collected from 366 secondary school students. The findings show that 73.8% of participants received PT, mainly to help them prepare for the university entrance examination. Seventy-four percent of fathers and 83% of mothers were holders of university degrees and they had the economic means to invest in more and better PT for their children. Thus, PT has the potential to be a force for reducing equity, and so effective policies to regulate PT should be adopted.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Education
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 20 2023

Keywords

  • shadow education
  • private tutoring
  • equity and inclusion
  • access to elite universities

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