Ground control has been and continues to be a major problem facing underground mines the world over. Two issues are of major concern; safety and economics. Accidents due to rockfalls and rockbursts in most underground coal and metalliferous mines cost mining companies large sums of money. The causes of rockfalls and rockbursts are inherently related to support practices and excavation processes. To reduce the incidence of accidents, mine engineers are designing operations using approaches ranging from empirical to analytical to observational. Recently, the probabilistic method of underground support design was introduced in mining. It has the capability of optimizing mine support with maximum efficiency and minimal costs. This paper reviews the probabilistic approach as a technique for ground control practices and examines the issue of acceptable risk levels in design in the mining environment. Rock Mechanics, Daemen & Schultz (eds).