In this study, a comprehensive analytical model to quantify the total nongeminate recombination losses, originating from bimolecular as well as bulk and surface trap-assisted recombination mechanisms in nonfullerene-based bulk heterojunction organic solar cells is developed. This proposed model is successfully employed to obtain the different contributions to the recombination current of the investigated solar cells under different illumination intensities. Additionally, the model quantitatively describes the experimentally measured open-circuit voltage versus light intensity dependence. Most importantly, it is possible to calculate the experimental results with the same fitting parameter values from the presented model. The validity of this model is also proven by a combination of other independent, steady-state, and transient experimental techniques. This new powerful analytical tool will enable researchers in the photovoltaic community to take into account the synergetic contribution from all relevant types of nongeminate recombination losses in different optoelectronic systems and target their analysis of recombination dynamics at any operating voltage.
- impedance spectroscopy
- nonfullerene acceptors
- nongeminate recombination
- organic bulk heterojunction solar cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Materials Science(all)