BACKGROUND/AIMS: Atherosclerosis and inflammation are the most important risk factors in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Pentraxin-3 (PTX-3) was shown to predict inflammation and atherosclerosis in ESRD patients. However, the role of renal transplantation (Rtx) in terms of atherogenesis is still unclear. We aimed to investigate the relationship between PTX-3, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in Rtx patients and healthy controls. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 29 Rtx patients (12 females, 40.1 ± 11.9 years) without overt CVD and 19 healthy subjects (9 females, 36.9 ± 8.9 years), testing the relationship between CIMT, assessed by ultrasonography, and selected biomarkers. RESULTS: CIMT, PTX-3, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels of Rtx patients were found to be significantly higher compared to healthy subjects. CIMT was positively correlated with age, creatinine, uric acid, triglyceride, PTX-3, hs-CRP, and NLR, and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate in all participants. In Rtx patients, CIMT was positively correlated with age, BMI, serum phosphorus, low-density lipoprotein, and hs-CRP. The multivariate analysis revealed that hs-CRP was found to be an independent variable of CIMT in Rtx patients. CONCLUSION: Our data showed that inflammation and atherosclerosis persist in Rtx patients. Serum hs-CRP might be a useful marker to assess these parameters in this population.