Review of risk-based design for ice-class ships

P. Kujala, F. Goerlandt, B. Way, D. Smith, M. Yang, F. Khan, B. Veitch

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

The growing interest for Arctic and Antarctic shipping activities due to the decreasing ice cover will also increase the risks of accidents on these waters. The design of ships for ice has traditionally been based on the practical experience without a clear link to the physics of the ship-ice interaction. The rules are, however, getting more towards the goal based approach, which require good knowledge of all the various element important for design. Risk based ship design (RBSD) is also widely applied e.g. for the passengers ships. Therefore, the scope of this paper is the review of the knowledge necessary for RBSD for Arctic conditions. The main focus is on ice loads and ship structures. Accident prevention and environmental consequences of oil spills are also discussed, but more briefly. In risk analysis, there is a recent focus on the treatment of uncertainty, or conversely, the strength of knowledge underlying the risk quantification. In light of this, the review is performed with specific focus on the strength of evidence of the different fields of knowledge needed to perform RBSD in ice conditions. The results indicate that the risk based design for Arctic operations is challenging as the ice environment, together with all the possible ship-ice contact scenarios, are complicated to define properly, especially on proper probabilistic terms. The main challenges are still related how to describe the ship-ice interaction parameters such as ship-ice contact characteristics, pressure distributions, and load levels in all the various ice conditions. In addition, the possible environmental consequences of the accidents need further research. Finally, human factors need to be incorporated in risk analysis techniques.

LanguageEnglish
Pages181-195
Number of pages15
JournalMarine Structures
Volume63
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Ice
Ships
Risk analysis
Accidents
Oil spills
Human engineering
Freight transportation
Pressure distribution
Physics
Water

Keywords

  • Ice environment
  • Ice load
  • Maritime safety
  • Risk-based ship design
  • Strength of evidence
  • Structural limit states
  • Uncertainty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Ocean Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Kujala, P., Goerlandt, F., Way, B., Smith, D., Yang, M., Khan, F., & Veitch, B. (2019). Review of risk-based design for ice-class ships. Marine Structures, 63, 181-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marstruc.2018.09.008

Review of risk-based design for ice-class ships. / Kujala, P.; Goerlandt, F.; Way, B.; Smith, D.; Yang, M.; Khan, F.; Veitch, B.

In: Marine Structures, Vol. 63, 01.01.2019, p. 181-195.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Kujala, P, Goerlandt, F, Way, B, Smith, D, Yang, M, Khan, F & Veitch, B 2019, 'Review of risk-based design for ice-class ships' Marine Structures, vol. 63, pp. 181-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marstruc.2018.09.008
Kujala P, Goerlandt F, Way B, Smith D, Yang M, Khan F et al. Review of risk-based design for ice-class ships. Marine Structures. 2019 Jan 1;63:181-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marstruc.2018.09.008
Kujala, P. ; Goerlandt, F. ; Way, B. ; Smith, D. ; Yang, M. ; Khan, F. ; Veitch, B. / Review of risk-based design for ice-class ships. In: Marine Structures. 2019 ; Vol. 63. pp. 181-195.
@article{dd7793ccf2b74c5a9ea874e6e40ac47d,
title = "Review of risk-based design for ice-class ships",
abstract = "The growing interest for Arctic and Antarctic shipping activities due to the decreasing ice cover will also increase the risks of accidents on these waters. The design of ships for ice has traditionally been based on the practical experience without a clear link to the physics of the ship-ice interaction. The rules are, however, getting more towards the goal based approach, which require good knowledge of all the various element important for design. Risk based ship design (RBSD) is also widely applied e.g. for the passengers ships. Therefore, the scope of this paper is the review of the knowledge necessary for RBSD for Arctic conditions. The main focus is on ice loads and ship structures. Accident prevention and environmental consequences of oil spills are also discussed, but more briefly. In risk analysis, there is a recent focus on the treatment of uncertainty, or conversely, the strength of knowledge underlying the risk quantification. In light of this, the review is performed with specific focus on the strength of evidence of the different fields of knowledge needed to perform RBSD in ice conditions. The results indicate that the risk based design for Arctic operations is challenging as the ice environment, together with all the possible ship-ice contact scenarios, are complicated to define properly, especially on proper probabilistic terms. The main challenges are still related how to describe the ship-ice interaction parameters such as ship-ice contact characteristics, pressure distributions, and load levels in all the various ice conditions. In addition, the possible environmental consequences of the accidents need further research. Finally, human factors need to be incorporated in risk analysis techniques.",
keywords = "Ice environment, Ice load, Maritime safety, Risk-based ship design, Strength of evidence, Structural limit states, Uncertainty",
author = "P. Kujala and F. Goerlandt and B. Way and D. Smith and M. Yang and F. Khan and B. Veitch",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.marstruc.2018.09.008",
language = "English",
volume = "63",
pages = "181--195",
journal = "Marine Structures",
issn = "0951-8339",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Review of risk-based design for ice-class ships

AU - Kujala, P.

AU - Goerlandt, F.

AU - Way, B.

AU - Smith, D.

AU - Yang, M.

AU - Khan, F.

AU - Veitch, B.

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - The growing interest for Arctic and Antarctic shipping activities due to the decreasing ice cover will also increase the risks of accidents on these waters. The design of ships for ice has traditionally been based on the practical experience without a clear link to the physics of the ship-ice interaction. The rules are, however, getting more towards the goal based approach, which require good knowledge of all the various element important for design. Risk based ship design (RBSD) is also widely applied e.g. for the passengers ships. Therefore, the scope of this paper is the review of the knowledge necessary for RBSD for Arctic conditions. The main focus is on ice loads and ship structures. Accident prevention and environmental consequences of oil spills are also discussed, but more briefly. In risk analysis, there is a recent focus on the treatment of uncertainty, or conversely, the strength of knowledge underlying the risk quantification. In light of this, the review is performed with specific focus on the strength of evidence of the different fields of knowledge needed to perform RBSD in ice conditions. The results indicate that the risk based design for Arctic operations is challenging as the ice environment, together with all the possible ship-ice contact scenarios, are complicated to define properly, especially on proper probabilistic terms. The main challenges are still related how to describe the ship-ice interaction parameters such as ship-ice contact characteristics, pressure distributions, and load levels in all the various ice conditions. In addition, the possible environmental consequences of the accidents need further research. Finally, human factors need to be incorporated in risk analysis techniques.

AB - The growing interest for Arctic and Antarctic shipping activities due to the decreasing ice cover will also increase the risks of accidents on these waters. The design of ships for ice has traditionally been based on the practical experience without a clear link to the physics of the ship-ice interaction. The rules are, however, getting more towards the goal based approach, which require good knowledge of all the various element important for design. Risk based ship design (RBSD) is also widely applied e.g. for the passengers ships. Therefore, the scope of this paper is the review of the knowledge necessary for RBSD for Arctic conditions. The main focus is on ice loads and ship structures. Accident prevention and environmental consequences of oil spills are also discussed, but more briefly. In risk analysis, there is a recent focus on the treatment of uncertainty, or conversely, the strength of knowledge underlying the risk quantification. In light of this, the review is performed with specific focus on the strength of evidence of the different fields of knowledge needed to perform RBSD in ice conditions. The results indicate that the risk based design for Arctic operations is challenging as the ice environment, together with all the possible ship-ice contact scenarios, are complicated to define properly, especially on proper probabilistic terms. The main challenges are still related how to describe the ship-ice interaction parameters such as ship-ice contact characteristics, pressure distributions, and load levels in all the various ice conditions. In addition, the possible environmental consequences of the accidents need further research. Finally, human factors need to be incorporated in risk analysis techniques.

KW - Ice environment

KW - Ice load

KW - Maritime safety

KW - Risk-based ship design

KW - Strength of evidence

KW - Structural limit states

KW - Uncertainty

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85054158264&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85054158264&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.marstruc.2018.09.008

DO - 10.1016/j.marstruc.2018.09.008

M3 - Review article

VL - 63

SP - 181

EP - 195

JO - Marine Structures

T2 - Marine Structures

JF - Marine Structures

SN - 0951-8339

ER -